How to equip the garden

Before each owner of the backyard, summer cottage or garden plots there is a question about the proper placement of the garden on his plot. The word “correct” itself implies that there are certain rules, norms or mandatory principles by which the garden should be equipped. Of course, you can select - but it is some. This is due to the huge variety of conditions.

Choosing a place for the garden

Under the garden emit the most sunny place, without shading from the south side. In contrast to the garden, which is located on the northern slope, it is the southern exposure that is preferable to the vegetable garden. This is if the garden is only a garden. The garden plot has certain requirements:
under the vegetables make higher doses of fertilizers (both organic and mineral);
provide good air permeability to soils, for which they make baking powder in the form of straw cutting, straw manure, river coarse sand;
create optimal conditions for moistening, remove excess water through drainage or arrange for watering with insufficient moistening;
protect the site from the prevailing winds, planting ornamental or fruit trees on the windward side, but so that there is no shading - all vegetables are light-requiring.

Sometimes gardeners divide the total area into several plots according to this principle: the main crops with a large area of ​​planting are isolated in one array, and green and spicy-aromatic are placed closer to the path and structure, so that you can easily cut a bunch of parsley or dill without running all over cottage or garden plot.

Recently it has become fashionable to arrange a decorative garden. Here, vegetable crops also perform design functions, so they are already selected for decorative qualities. But it is still exotic. If the topic of an ornamental garden is interesting to you - read the articles on the principles of its organization from the list of recommended literature for the lesson.It is undesirable to plant vegetables between the rows of the garden, where there is shading, competition for water and nutrients, there is a danger of contamination of products with poisons used to protect the garden. Yes, and vegetables work out better in open areas.

We place greenhouses and greenhouses

There are a lot of vegetable crops, and they are very diverse in their appearance and cultivation features. The desire of the gardener to provide themselves with early vegetables leads to the need to allocate space for insulated soil. Now there are no problems in the acquisition of various greenhouses and hotbeds or materials for their independent construction.In a protected soil, heat-loving vegetables are grown in small quantities: tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumber, zucchini. To obtain early greens in warm ground, lettuce, dill, parsley and other herbs are sown as seals. To meet the demand for early vegetables, usually 4-5 plants of each culture are sufficient.

The area under the warmed soil is usually not more than 100 sq.m. But in areas with cool summers it is difficult to grow warm-loving vegetables in the open field, and they are grown only under shelters. In this case, greenhouses are needed, and their area will already be higher - up to 300 square meters and even more. Of course, it is better to grow crops not related separately, for example: a cucumber with a zucchini in one building, and tomatoes, pepper and eggplant - in another. But if the plants are few, then it is difficult to implement, and not too necessary.

We build beds

Garden beds are made in the spring, just marking the tracks. The paths between the beds should provide easy access and the ability to reach the middle of the bed by hand. As a rule, for this, the width of the walkway should be no less than 40-50 cm. The length of the beds themselves can be arbitrary, and the width should be convenient for work: so that you can easily reach with your hand a little further than the middle of the bed. It is necessary for carrying out manual works - sowing, weeding, harvesting.The beds for individual crops (like greenhouses) with the long side are better placed from north to south - this way the plants will be better lit during the day. The number of rows of plants in the beds is arbitrary.

Usually the beds make a rectangular shape. According to their device, they can be different. So, in the south they try to do level with the soil surface or even in-depth, and in the center of the country and in the north - raised. The edges of the beds are usually not limited to the frame, but when constructing narrow ridges according to Mittlayder or warm steam ridges, they arrange a skeleton of boards or flat slate, other materials.

Different ways of arranging the ridges: buried or raised, in a frame, and so on - it is better to master gradually. Learn more about what kind of beds there are, how to build them, what are the advantages and disadvantages of various options - read in the articles from the list to read for this lesson.Under large plants (with a large bush) or vines make wide distances between the rows - from 40 to 90 cm, and between small plants, on the contrary, the rows between rows are reduced to 15 cm or even less. The greatest distance between rows require pumpkins and climbing squash - more than 1.5-2 m;
wide aisles are needed for tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, squash squash, beans.
narrow aisles - for beets, carrots, green crops.
 
Layout of plants in the beds:
root crops - 6 cm between plants in a row and 10-15 cm between rows; it is also convenient to place most of the green and spicy aromatic plants;
Solanum will require support for each bush; place them according to the scheme 50 × 50 or 70 × 70 cm;
early cabbage is placed according to the scheme 40 × 40 cm;
late cabbage - according to the scheme 50 × 70 cm;
cucumber: when grown on a support leave 25-30 cm between the bushes; when grown without a garter between plants, 60-70 cm is left, and between the rows are increased to 90-120 cm;
squash bush type placed after 40 cm;
climbing zucchini - through 70-120 cm.

Soil requirements

Plot under the garden should be fertile. Vegetables were traditionally grown in rural farmsteads, where a lot of organic matter was introduced into the soil, but in modern garden plots there is a completely different situation, additional reclamation measures may be required - for example, if the groundwater is shallow, groundwater may be drained or wells.Usually, beginners just need to make fertilizer in the fall:
organic (manure, humus, composts of organic waste) at the rate of 60-100 kg per 100 square meters;
mineral complex, where there is nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (azofoska, nitroammofoska, foskamid, autumn and others) - up to 5 kg per 100 sq.m.

Then you should dig the plot as deep as possible, but taking into account the thickness of the fertile layer. On poor podzolic soils, instead of deep plowing, gradual plowing is carried out with a deepening of the arable horizon by 5-7 cm per year and compost is used from any kind of organic matter. Baking powder is only needed on heavy and swimming soils.

Good results are obtained by sowing perennial grasses (alfalfa, clover, sainfoin) for 2-3 years and their plowing. Instead of perennial grasses, annual grasses can be plowed as siderats. These can be barley-based or oat-based mixtures with vetch or peas. Before plowing the grass, it is necessary to grind and apply nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers at the rate of 1-2 kg per hundred.Fertilizer individual vegetable crops has its own characteristics. So, a cucumber, zucchini, late and middle cabbage make organic (manure, humus, compost), and a tomato, pepper, eggplant - only humus or well decomposed compost. Under onions and root vegetables, early cabbage make only mineral fertilizers.

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